Greece was attacked by Italy in late October 1940. In April 1941, the country was also invaded by German troops. With the Greek army defeated, the country remained under occupation until October 1944. Greece was divided into three zones. Meanwhile, Germany kept control over parts of Greek Macedonia (including Thessaloniki) and parts of Thrace, Piraeus and part of Crete. Bulgaria annexed Eastern Greek Macedonia and the rest of Thrace. Athens was jointly occupied by Germany and Italy. After the Italian surrender in September 1943, all Italian-occupied regions came under German rule. The Red Army’s advance in late 1944 forced the Germans to withdraw from Greece. In October 1944, British troops entered Athens unopposed.
In 1941, Greece had a total population of about 7,370,000 inhabitants; up to 80,000 of them were Jews. While Jewish communities existed in at least two dozen cities, the biggest one was in Thessaloniki, numbering up to 55,000 people. On 11 July 1942, all male Jews between 18 and 45 years old were gathered in one of the city’s squares and beaten and humiliated for hours.After their registration, thousands of them were subjected to forced labour. Three months later, after the payment of a huge ransom, they were released. In February 1943, the Jews were obliged to wear the Yellow Star and forced to move into two ghetto areas. Between March and August of that year, up to 46,000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where most of them were murdered upon arrival. In the Italian occupational zone, the Jews enjoyed relative safety until the Italian surrender to the Allies in September 1943. After the Germans took control over the Italian zone, almost all its Jews were also deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Jews from the territories under Bulgarian administration were deported to Treblinka in March 1943 following a Bulgarian-German agreement signed a month earlier. In total, less than twenty percent of the Greek Jews survived the Holocaust, with the highest percentage of victims in Thessaloniki and the Bulgarian occupational zone.
In Greece, the General State Archives (GSA) are responsible for the preservation and promotion of Greek archival materials. Created in 1914 and controlled by the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, they now consist of a central service, 47 regional services and 16 local archives. The legal framework for them was laid down in 1946/1991. As in most countries, there are laws on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal and sensitive data (1991, 1997), and records may be restricted for a period of 30 years. In addition to the state archives, there are also collections in private archives and museums.
EHRI Research (Summary)
In Greece, EHRI identified 39 Holocaust-relevant repositories and was able to present 92 archival descriptions by March 2015. Apart from the GSA, central and regional services, materials about Greek Jewry before and during the Second World War can be found in the Service of Diplomatic & Historical Archives of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ypiresia Diplomatikou kai Istorikou Arheiou, YDIA) in Athens. Important collections on the Holocaust in Greece can also be found in the archives in the two cities which were home to the two central Jewish communities before and after the Second World War. The important Records of the Central Agency for the Custody of Jewish Property (Archeio tis Ypiresias Diacheirisis Israilitikon Periousion, YDIP), which regulated the expropriation of Jewish businesses in Greece during the war, are kept in the Archives of the Jewish Museum of Greece in Athens. The declarations of finances and property completed by its members prior to their deportation to Auschwitz in 1943 can be found in the Jewish Community of Thessaloniki. A collection of correspondence between different Greek Jewish communities and Greek authorities concerning the restitution of property is held in the Archive of the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece, in Athens.
EHRI Research (Extensive)
A. EHRI approach to Greece: Pre-existing research and third-party surveys, available archival guides, expert support
When EHRI began its work, a number of studies on the Holocaust in Greece was available, such as Hagen Fleischer’s “Crown and Swastika: Greece during the Occupation and the Resistance, 1941-1944” (1995) and Steven Bowman’s “The Agony of Greek Jews” (2009). Other important works on the subject include a number of publications which are available only in Greek:
-  Varon-Vassard, Odette, I Analysi Mias Dyskolis Mnimis. Keimena gia ti Genoktonia ton Evraion [The emergence of a difficult memory: Essays on the Jewish Genocide], Athens, Hestia Publishers, 2012,
-  Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece (eds), Young people in the maelstrom of occupied Greece: The Persecution and Holocaust of the Jewish People (1943-1944), Athens, Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece & General Secretariat for Youth 2009,
-  Bowman, Steven B. & Benmayor, Isaac (eds), The Holocaust in Salonika: eyewitness accounts, New York, Sephardic House, 2002,
-  Abatzopoulou, Frangiski, To Olokaftoma stis Martyries ton Ellinon Evraion [The Holocaust in the Testimonies of Greek Jews], Thessaloniki, Paratiritis editions, 1998,
-  Constantopoulou, Photini, and Thanos Veremis, Castaniotis Th. (eds.), Documents on the History of Greek Jews: Records from the Historical Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs-University of Athens, Athens. Documents on the History of the Greek Jews. Athens, Kastaniotis Editions, 1998,
-  Matsas Michael, The Illusion of Safety. The story of Greek Jews during the Second World War, New York, Pella 1997,
-  Mazower, Mark. Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience of Occupation 1941–1944. Yale University Press, 1993,
-  Dalven, Rae, The Jews of Ioannina. Philadelphia, Cadmus Press, 1990,
-  Benviniste Rika (editor), Oi Evraioi tis Elladas stin Katohi [The Jews of Greece during the German Occupation], Thessaloniki, Vanias Editions, 1988,
-  Novitch, Miriam, Le passage des Barbares. Contribution a l’histoire de la Deportation et de la Resistance des Juifs Grecs, Nice, Presses du Temps Present 1967 (published in Greek 1986),
-  Molho Michael & Joseph Nehama, In memoriam: hommage aux victimes juives des Nazis en Grece, Nikolaides Thessaloniki 1948 (published also in Greek, Thessaloniki 1974).
EHRI enlisted a local specialist, Dr Vasilis Ritzaleos, who reads Modern and Contemporary History at Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki. Since October 2013, he has been a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Thrace/Department of History and Ethnology, where he focused on the Holocaust in the Bulgarian-occupied zone of Greece. He has published extensively in the field of Holocaust research:
-  “I Evraiiki Koinotita Kavalas ston Elegho ton Voulgarikon Archon Katohis: organosi, ekmetalefsi, dialysi (1942-1944)”, in: V. Dalkavoukis, El. Paschalousi, Il. Skoulidas, K. Tsekou (eds.), Afigiseis gia ti dekaetia tou 1940, Thessaloniki: Epikentro, 2012, pp. 69-90.
-  “I tyxi tis akinitis periousias ton Evraion stin Kavala prin apo ton ektopismo stin Polonia ton Martio tou 1943”, in: N. Roudometov (ed.), I Kavala kai ta Valkania, I Kavala kai I Thraki (Kavala, 17-18 septembre 2010), vol.2, Kavala: Historical and Literary Archives of Kavala, 2012, pp.751-770.
-  “I Elliniki Orthodoxi Ekklisia tis Thessalonikis kai to Olokaftoma”, in : G. Antoniou, Str. Dordanas, N. Zaikos and N. Marantzidis (eds.), The Holocaust in the Balkans, Thessaloniki: Epikentro, 2011, pp. 295-330,
-  Oi Evraikes koinotites stin Anatoliki Makedonia kai ti Thraki apo ta mesa tou dekatou enatou aiona mehri ton Deftero Pagkosmio Polemo, Doctoral dissertation in history, Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2006.
Vasilis Ritzaleos has also contributed to and written the introduction for the Greek-language edition of Nathan Grinberg’s, Dokumenta, Komotini: Paratiritis tis Thrakis, 2013, which were originally published in Bulgarian in 1945.
EHRI started its identification and investigation work for data integration on Greece from the researcher interviews carried out by the “user requirements” Work Package. These interviews have been carried out with both junior and senior scholars conducting advanced research in the field of Holocaust studies in order to identify and analyse scholarly research practices and use of archival materials in the area of Holocaust studies, and how digital methods and approaches can be used to support and enhance these practices (EHRI, 2011, p. 47-48). All interviews have been conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 (Angelis e.a., 2013, p. 17). Even though these interviews were processed to create a set of data and functional requirements for the Virtual Research Environment (VRE), they also brought in names of repositories which were not yet included into the repository database. So EHRI decided to further engage with the interviewees, especially with the four interviewees on Holocaust research in Greece. Maintaining and expanding the contacts with the user requirements interviewees seemed a novel and productive way forward, not only for the sake of the data this could bring in, but also for a general engagement with the research community. By linking data integration and user requirements in this way, EHRI wants to ensure that the EHRI portal will attract historians, archivists, and the general public to use it, and that it identifies the data that researchers hope to find on this VRE, in order to generate more interest and offer more meaningful content and format.
The researchers of the Holocaust in Greece interviewed by EHRI’s user requirements Work Package were asked to suggest further researchers specialised in Holocaust history in Greece to participate in an EHRI workshop on data integration and Holocaust research in Greece which took place in Athens on 4 December 2012. It is important to note that for two user requirement interviewees who participated in the workshop, this was their second in-person contact with EHRI. The other two had close colleagues attending the workshop, so this was not only a tool to ‘set up’ a relationship with users, but also to “nurture it throughout in an interactive fashion” (Marchionni, 2009). Four representatives of repositories in Greece, three graduate students, two junior and two senior researchers particpated in the workshop.
In addition to the connection to user requirements, other important reasons to focus on the Greek case study were 1) the historical reasons - the size of the pre-war Jewish community (up to 80,000) and the number of victims (over 80 per cent) – and 2) the language and transcription, making the integration of Greek material a challenge. The search for archival sources are further complicated by the multiple occupational zones in war-time Greece (Italian, German and Bulgarian) and the British armed forces entering the country in 1944. As a result, sources on the Holocaust in Greece are spread over multiple countries; Greece itself and the occupying and liberating countries’ archives. Large Holocaust aggregators’ archives (Yad Vashem and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) have already brought much material together, but there is still much work to do.
Before meeting with the researchers, EHRI was aware of ten repositories (collection-holding institutions). The purpose of the workshop was to receive expert feedback on this list and further complete EHRI’s overview of repositories and identify Holocaust-related collections within the repositories. EHRI also needed to better understand the format of the metadata and detect where further surveying was necessary. The overall goal was to create a state-of-the-art report of identified Holocaust-related sources in Greece and to add this information to the EHRI portal, as much as possible via the technical Work Packages (as opposed to manually entering the information into the portal).
The Greek workshop has had multiple benefits for EHRI as it ensured the content fits the user. It is a time-efficient identification method which avoids duplication of work. At the same time, it was an investment in smooth communication with future VRE users. It soon became clear that the main issue and challenge for Holocaust research in Greece was access. Access to material was also identified as one of the key needs in the user requirement interviews (Angelis e.a., 2013, p. 58-60). As the overview under point C indicates, we were far from discussing merging digital (meta-)data from different sources, about how and in what format to integrate digital data into the EHRI portal. Still, EHRI’s VRE can support Holocaust-research in Greece by improving access to information about the materials, be it awareness about and location of repositories or identifying relevant collections within repositories. Not only by bringing in as much information as possible during the project, but also by engaging with the research community which can help EHRI further enrich the data by annotating and adding it to the portal, such as, for example, adding a repository, together with the link to a publication based on the material found there. A second important role for EHRI can be to reach out to the institutions and offer them tools and a platform to share the information about their holdings to the research community.
B. Characteristics of the Greek archival system and specific challenges
A major challenge in Greece is that there is an unknown number of materials which remains totally invisible because there is no indication about their existence online and because there is the huge challenge of the (digital) description backlog which requires a thorough identifying and inventorying campaign. Uncatalogued materials remain hidden.
Finding aids are often only consultable at the repository itself. The limited number of online information and locally available cataloguing systems make access to the actual materials time consuming and often costly and inefficient (a research trip is hard to prepare).
Another challenge concerns receiving permission for consultation. Access to public archives in Greece often requires an application procedure before any access is granted. Two laws regulate the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal and sensitive archives (1991 and 1997). The time limit for keeping records restricted was reduced from fifty to thirty years (although there is room for flexibility in certain cases). In some cases it is not possible or there are limits to take photographs, scans or photocopies. Sometimes, lack of capacity of the reading room is an issue.
At the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, not all archives can be made publicly accessible for reasons of national security, among others. A collection of documents concerning the Holocaust has been removed from the original collections and has been put in one separate collection, leading to a loss of context.
Another issue pertains the destruction of archives. The destruction of archives does not only apply to Holocaust archives but did include sources on the topic. For example, the archives of the Greek Agency for War Crimes, which was founded in the autumn of 1945, were totally destroyed in 1975. In some cases, materials have been scanned before destruction. The Jewish Community of Thessaloniki which engages in such digitisation projects, has as such preserved certain sources.
Yet another challenge is that material is kept with private organisations which do not necessarily consider themselves archival institutions. These archives are hard to locate and often remain “hidden treasures”. Being able to share the knowledge on the sheer existence of these hidden treasures by entering or annotating them to the EHRI portal could already be a major step forwards for Greek Holocaust research, especially at the local level, in Jewish community archives.
C. EHRI identification and description results
C.I. In Greece
In Greece, EHRI identified 39 Holocaust-relevant repositories, and was able to present 92 archival descriptions by March 2015. While many archival institutions can be found, predictably, in the country’s capital, Athens, important collections are also held by regional branches of the General State Archives (GAS), especially in Greece’s northern regions, i.e. in Central Macedonia, as well as in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace.
- the Archives of the Central Board of Jewish Communities of Greece (Kentriko Israilitiko Symvoulio Ellados),
- the Central Service Archives (Kentriki Ypiresia ton Genikon Archeion tou Kratous),
- the Contemporary Social History Archives (Arheia Syghrones Koinonikes Istorias),
- the Hellenic Library and Historical Archive – National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation (Ellēniko Logotehniko kai Istoriko Arheio - Morfotiko Idryma Ethnikis Trapezis),
- the Hellenic Red Cross Tracing Department (Ypiresia Anazitiseon Ellinikou Erithrou Stavrou),
- the Historic Archive of the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece (Istoriko Archeio tis Ieras Synodou tis Ekklisias tis Ellados),
- the Jewish Museum of Greece (Evraiko Mouseio Ellados),
- the National Bank of Greece – Historical Archive (Ethniki Trapeza tis Ellados - Istoriko Archeio),
- the Service of Diplomatic and Historical Archives (Ypiresia Diplomatikou kai Istorikou Archeiou).
- the General State Archives – Archives of Evia in Chalkida, Periferia Sterea Ellada (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Evias).
- the American College of Thessaloniki (Amerikaniko Kollegio Thessalonikis),
- the General State Archives – Regional Archives in Serres (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Serron),
- the Hellenic Library and Historical Archive of Thessaloniki – National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation (Ellēniko Logotehniko kai Istoriko Arheio Thessalonikis - Morfotiko Idryma Ethnikis Trapezis),
- the Historical Archive of Macedonia in Thessaloniki (Istoriko Arheio Makedonias),
- the Holy Diocese of Thessaloniki (Iera Mitropolis Thessalonikis),
- the Institute for Balkan Studies in Tessaloniki (Idryma Meleton Chersonisou tou Aimou),
- the Jewish Community of Thessaloniki (General Communal Archives) (Israilitiki Koinotita Thessalonikis, Genika Koinotika Archeia),
- the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki (Evraiko Mouseio Thessalonikis),
- the Municipal Foundling Home of Thessaloniki “Agios Stylianos” (Dimotiko Vrefokomeio Thessalonikis "Agios Stylianos"),
- the Municipal Library of Thessaloniki (Central Department) (Dimotiki Vivliothiki Thessalonikis, Kentriko Tmima),
- the Municipality of Thessaloniki (Town Hall) (Dimos Thessalonikis, Dimarcheio),
- the Christos Kavvadas Private Collection in Thessaloniki (Idiotiki Syllogi Christou Kavvada),
- the Thessaloniki History Centre (Kentro Istorias Thessalonikis).
- the Historical Archive of Crete in Chania (Istoriko Archeio Kritis).
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace:
- the General State Archives (GAS) – Regional Archives of Drama (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Dramas),
- the General State Archives (GAS) – Regional Archives of Kavala (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Kavalas),
- the General State Archives – Regional Archives of Rodopi in Komotini (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Rodopis),
- the General State Archives (GAS) – Archives of Xanthi (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Xanthi),
- the Historical and Library Archives of Kavala (Istoriko kai Logotechniko Archeio Kavalas),
- the Kavala Municipal Museum (Dimotiko Mouseio Kavalas),
- the Land Registry of Xanthi (Ypothikofilakeio Xanthis),
- the Land Registry Office of Drama (Ypothikofilakeio Dramas),
- the Land Service of Drama (Ktimatiki Ypiresia Dramas).
- the General State Archives – Regional Archives of Dodecanese in the city of Rhodes (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Dodekanisou),
- the International Writers’ and Translators’ Centre of Rhodes (IWTCR) (Diethnes Kentro Logotechnon kai Metafraston Rodou - Kymata Trion Thalasson).
- the General State Archives – Regional Archives of Magnisia in Volos (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Magnisias),
- the University of Thessaly-Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology (Panepistimio Thessalias-Tmima Istorias, Archaiologias kai Koinonikis Antrhopologias)
- the Jewish Community of Larissa (Israilitiki Koinotita Larisas).
- the General State Archives – Archives of Florina (Genika Archeia tou Kratous - Archeia Nomou Florinas).
Working methods for Greek data integration
Only a very limited number of institutions share descriptions of their holdings online. One of them is the Hellenic Literary and Historical Archive, better known as E.L.I.A. (part of the National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation, M.I.E.T.). Its website has an extensive online Greek language catalogue which meets international metadata standards (E.L.I.A., 2013). This archive is one of the only ones which could step in fairly easily in what most people envisage a VRE to put together. A second, but different example is the Jewish Museum of Greece (2013), whose Holocaust collection consists of more than 2,000 artefacts, including books and pamphlets, periodicals, maps, documents, manuscripts (personal notes, correspondence, memoires, diaries, etc.), false IDs, personal objects, ritual objects, jewellery, textiles and costumes, clothing, badges, armbands, numismatics (coins, banknotes, stock certificates) and an art collection. The Holocaust Archive consists of the Y.D.I.P. archive (Yperesia Diatheseos Israelitikon Periousion, Central Agency for the Custody of Jewish Property), the O.P.A.I.E. archive (The Heirless Property and Jewish Rehabilitation Fund), private and personal archives which include material pertinent to the Shoah, the JMG Audiovisual archive of oral histories and personal testimonies and the photographic archive. The Holocaust Photographic Archive has a rich and expanding collection of photographic images spanning from the pre-war period to the early 1950s. The broad subject areas, each including several subcategories, are Jewish life before, during and after the Second World War and the Holocaust. An extensive number of document scans and photographs of the museum’s collection have been uploaded in Judaica Europeana (Judaica Europeana, 2013).
The Database of Greek-Jewish Holocaust Survivors’ Testimonies (2013), a project led by Professor Rika Benveniste of the University of Thessaly, assembles all audio and visual testimonies from Greek Jews who survived the Holocaust. The database is a virtual archive that systematically brings together testimonies from repositories in Greece and abroad, public and private collections, collected in different languages and places, at different times. In addition to the archives with online finding aids, there are several institutions with a high degree of digitisation, such as the Parliament Library and the Karamanlis Foundation.
The largest institution for EHRI’s purposes in Greece, the General State Archives (national archives of Greece, GSA), are the national institution responsible for the preservation and promotion of the Greek archival materials. The institution was created in 1914 and its operation is organised by law. Even though EHRI had one central entry for the institution, it became clear that this was not sufficient as the Greek State Archives consist of a central service, 47 regional services and 16 local archives. Based on the location of the wartime Jewish communities in Greece - in at least 27 cities according to the Central Board of Jewish Communities of Greece (2009) -, selections should be made in the branches of the GSA. The selected archives should further be surveyed on site. Even though there is a digital finding aid, Arxeiomnimon (2013), “Memory of the archives” (containing about seven million pages of documents), only allows navigation through parts of the archival collections originating from 37 GSA agencies (the central service and 36 branches). Even though the metadata fields are provided in English, the actual descriptions are in Greek. The missing agencies and materials either remain uncatalogued, or there are published Greek-language finding aids or index cards in filing cabinets in the reading rooms of the respective branches. The latter, however, are less standardised than the online database.
Much material in the GSA remains non-digital and not all the digitalised materials have yet been included in Arxeiomnimon, among other things due to lack of resources.
In March 2008, all branches of the GSA had been asked to provide an overview of collections and documents related to the history of the Jews in Greece and the Holocaust in order to prepare the survey work of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). The responses were rather limited: fifteen to twenty local offices submitted such a report, which varied from a short note confirming there is such material available to an overview of records. Nevertheless, this list can serve as a first orientation tool for EHRI’s surveying.
Meeting with the researchers made us aware of many other archives, some of which are yet to be located. For example, the location or even the preservation of the police and army archives remains unknown.
The same goes for sources on two concentration camps in Greece where Jews were imprisoned. Archival documentation on their presence is – until now – missing. Likewise, the researchers pointed us to yet another mixture of private and public archives, such as the archives of the Chamber of Commerce, the Court House and other juridical archives, municipal archives, church archives (for example the archives of the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church), Communist Party Archives, Red Cross Archives, public and private company archives (electricity, water, port companies), and private collections kept in museums, at home or in private institutions, some of which remain hidden or closed.
Even though it may sound easy to just include all municipal archives of cities with a Jewish community at the time of the Second World War, the expertise of the workshop participants pointed EHRI to the fact that in the Bulgarian occupied zone demographic records of some towns have been transferred to the local branch of the GSA.
In addition to the identification of the repositories which have to be included, the workshop participants also informed EHRI about archives which were checked (because they could potentially contain Holocaust-related materials), but do not (as was established by the experts).
C. II. In other countries
Outside of Greece, archives and collections relevant to the period of the Holocaust in Greece can be found in a number of countries, some of which are partially covered by Holocaust-relevant archival guides. For Germany, for instance, there is Irith Dublon-Knebel’s overview “German Foreign Office Documents on the Holocaust in Greece (2007)”, for Italy, there are collections of documents edited by Daniel Carpi, “Italian Diplomatic Documents on the History of the Holocaust in Greece (1941-1943), Tel Aviv, Diaspora Research Center-Tel Aviv University, 1999.
Germany, Bulgaria, the United States, Israel, England, Spain, Switzerland and Austria
In Germany, relevant archival holdings are located at the Political Archive of the German Foreign Office in Berlin, the Federal Archives-Department Military Archives in Freiburg, the Federal Archives-The Central Office for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes in Lundwigsburg, the Archives of the International Tracing Service (ITS) in Bad Arolsen. In Bulgaria, at the Central State Archives in Sofia, the Central Military Archives in Veliko Turnovo.
In the United States, relevant archival holdings are located at the National Archives in Washington DC, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York, the Visual History Archive/USC Shoah Foundation in Los Angeles, the American Joint Distribution Committee Archives in New York, the Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies at Sterling Memorial Library (Yale University). A special note needs to be made about copies of the archives of the following Greek Jewish communities which were copied and made available for research at USHMM, but remain largely unaccessible for research in Greek itself for various reasons (including lack of resources). USHMM has completed its digitization in Larissa and Chalkida; digitization has been started in Volos, Ioannina, and Trikala; digitization may continue in Athens, Corfu and Rhodes.
In Israel, relevant archival holdings are located at the Yad Vashem Archives in Jerusalem, the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem, the Hagana History Archives in Tel Aviv, the Ghetto Fighters’ House Archives in Galilee, the Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Oral History Division (Hebrew University).
In England, relevant archival holdings are located at the National Archives in Kew; In Spain, at the Archives of the Spanish Foreign Office in Madrid; In Switzerland, at the International Committee of the Red Cross Archives in Geneve; and in Austria, at the Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation (known as Centropa) in Vienna.
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