Language of Description: English
  1. AJDC Photographs.

    This part of the records of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee consists of pictures of the activities of this organisations all around the world. The fonds should contain pictures on JDC work in Belgium. At the time of writing, the relevant folder appeared to be missing.

  2. Records of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Landsmanshaftn Department.

    In subseries 4 (“correspondence about countries and with the regional JDC offices”), we find a file on “JDC Belgium” (years 1947-1948) - see box 18, folder nr. 534.

  3. Max Gottschalk Papers.

    The Max Gottschalk Papers almost exclusively consist of correspondence of Gottschalk with various individuals and organisations. We note: correspondence concerning Gottschalk’s relations with Belgian Free Masons living in the USA (folder XXXI-1; period 1941); correspondence with various individuals (folder XXXI-2; 1942); letters of thanks and various invitations (folder XXXI-32; 1942-1944); correspondence of Gottschalk concerning his son Robert i.a. regarding his admission into university, bar mitzvah, summer camp performances etc. (folder XXXI-4; 1942-1943); correspondence with regards to ...

  4. Records of the Vaad Hayeshivot Vilna, Poland.

    This fonds contains a “Subseries 4: Sefer Tora Project, 1933-1935”, consisting of lists of contributions and correspondence regarding the Sefer Tora Project. We note files on Antwerp (folder nr. 820) and Brussels (nr. 833).

  5. HIAS – European Office in Paris.

    The (sub)series in this fonds contain several interesting files regarding Belgium. Series 1 contains emigrant case files, arranged by destination country. For Belgium, see folder nrs. 5851-5853; for the former Belgian Congo, see folder nrs. 3087-3092. This series also contains a fairly large number of files entitled “International” and “Miscellaneous international”, which might also contain case files of people migrating to (or from) Belgium. In Series 2 (“AJDC Paris Office Correspondence”) there is a section on Belgium, holding 5 folders. Folder nr. 5988 contains statistical reports (1951-...

  6. Records of HIAS-HICEM Main Office in Europe.

    This fonds contains many files concerning the situation of Jewish refugees in Belgium before the Second World War, and the work of BELHICEM/BEL-HIAS in particular. First of all, the records of a general nature in Series I (“France I, Pre-Occupation Records, 1933-1940”) may hold valuable information on Belgium – see the many general files, minutes of meetings, activity reports, statistical material and correspondence, often arranged by country. For instance, we can find information on the establishment of HICEM offices in Belgium (1939) in the minutes of monthly meetings of the HICEM Paris o...

  7. HIAS and HICEM Main Office, New York.

    The various series and subseries of this fonds contain many files relevant to the work of HIAS and HICEM in Belgium, or concerning aid to refugees from Belgium. We also point out that, as with other record groups of the HIAS-HICEM collection, the series and files in this fonds often include correspondence of Max Gottschalk, due to his position in this organisation. Series III (“Correspondence between HIAS and HICEM Offices”) contains several files with correspondence relevant to our guide, namely correspondence between Max Gottschalk and other individuals. See file III-3 (i.a. concerning Em...

  8. David Trotsky Collection.

    This fonds contains documents concerning the Jewish communities in Belgium (mainly Antwerp and Brussels) during the interwar period, collected by David Trotsky. The bulk of the material is dated 1920-1938. We mostly find printed matter (newsletters, posters, flyers, …), circulars, reports, membership cards, invitations, election materials, clippings, … covering virtually all aspects of Jewish political, social, cultural, economic and religious life. We note files on the Zionist Federation of Belgium (file nr. 1); the Zionist Association of Brussels (nrs. 2-3); other Zionist groups (i.a. Zei...

  9. Bund Archives.

    The various series of the Bund Archives contain interesting material on Bundism and the Jewish workers movement in Belgium. Due to the structure of this fonds, we are forced to describe relevant files according to the folder list they are mentioned in. From folder list “MG 2”, we firstly note several files on the First World Conference of the Bund, held in Brussels (1947) – see folders nr. 6 (notes, minutes), nr. 7 (telegrams, correspondence), nr. 8 (manuscripts), nr. 9 (correspondence), nr. 10 (notes from L. Hersch), nr. 11 (resolution, leaflets, guest passes) and nr. 15 (theses of L. Hers...

  10. Territorial Photographic Collection.

    The Territorial Photographic Collection contains photographs of Jewish life in more than 65 different countries. There is a series concerning Belgium, totalling 57 folders. Folders “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Antwerp I”, “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Antwerp II”, “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Antwerp III” and “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Antwerp IV” contain portraits of people wearing the yellow star. In folders “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Brussels 1”, “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Brussels 2” and “Belgium 1940-1944 photo Brussels 3, 4” we resp. find group portraits of students of a Jewish school (before the deport...

  11. Territorial Collection.

    This fonds contains a subseries on Belgium, totalling 54 folders. They contain various archival material (correspondence, reports, leaflets, …) and printed matter. We note the following file descriptions, cited verbatim from the folder list: “Experience of Belgian Jews during the war. Catalog of a 1946 exhibiton entitled Crimes Hitlérien May 25-June 30 1946” (nr. 1), “2 copies of SD 1942 report on Belgian Jews and the measures against them” (nr. 2), “Wartime identity cards. School Reports by Jewish students”(nr. 3), “Part of burned Torah” (nr. 4), “Anti-Semitic articles in the Brüsseler Zei...

  12. Eyewitness Accounts of the Holocaust. Collection, 1939-1945.

    This collection consists of over 1900 testimonies written by Holocaust survivors, documenting their experiences in occupied Europe in the years 1939-1945. The testimonies are often very extensive, numbering in the dozens of pages. There are three series, corresponding with efforts to collect testimonies undertaken in the immediate postwar years (Series I), in 1954 (Series II) and since the 1960s (Series III). Testimonies with reference to Belgium are especially found in Series I. These testimonies were collected in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, Italy and also in Poland and ot...

  13. Belgium.

    The “Belgium” record group consists of several subcollections of microfilmed and/or digitised documents, of which the originals are preserved in Belgian archival and Jewish institutions. At the time of writing, there were 22 subcollections (see RG-65.001M to RG-65.024), exclusively consisting of (microfilm or digital) copies of archival material. In most cases, only a selection of documents and not the entire archival fonds/collection was copied. From the collections of the General State Archives (Archives Générales du Royaume / Algemeen Rijksarchief) and its local sections, we note general...

  14. Oral History.

    This collection contains thousands of interviews with survivors, rescuers and other witnesses of the Shoah and the Second World War. The interviews were not only conducted by the USHMM, but also by a multitude of other research institutions (most importantly, the USC Shoah Foundation) and private research initiatives. Almost 3800 interviews are streamable online. A simple search on geographical keywords such as Belgium, Brussels, Antwerp, … already yields more than 1170 interviews of persons who lived in Belgium before, during or after the war, or who passed through the country at some point.

  15. Survivor testimonies.

    This collection consists of memoirs written by Holocaust survivors. The documents contain information on their life in Nazi-Germany and occupied Europe, emigration and living in exile, deportation, experiences in the ghetto’s and concentration camps, the liberation, etc. Some of the files also contain personal documents, correspondence, newspapers clipping and the like. At the time of writing, 7 memoirs (dating from 1988, 1994-1995) were tagged with the keyword ‘Belgium’.

  16. Photograph collection.

    The Photograph collection of the USHMM is of great interest to this guide. Searching on keywords such as “Belgium”, “Belgique”, “Brussels”, “Antwerp” … yields more than 3500 results. Among the photographs we find images of political organisations (i.a. the Bund, Poale Zion, other Zionist organisations), youth movements (i.a. Gordonia, Hashomer Hatzair) and religious organisations (i.a. Brit Kanaim); of synagogues and other religious buildings; of Jewish schools, teachers and students; of the ‘refugee question’ in Belgium (i.a. the MS St. Louis, the refugee camp in Marneffe); of Jewish child...

  17. Visual History Archive.

    This important collection contains testimonies of Jewish survivors, rescuers, political prisoners, war crimes trial participants, Roma survivors, … etc. about their life before, during and after the Shoah. It is a crucial source for the history of the Holocaust. On average, the interviews are about 2 hours in length. At the time of writing, the geographical keyword “Belgium” was attributed to 2136 testimonies. 433 Belgian towns, cities and places are mentioned. The interviews provide information on all aspects of Jewish life in Belgium – political, religious, social and cultural life, youth...

  18. Edward S. Goldstein: Jewish Labor Committee Research Files.

    Box 2, folder nr. 60 (“France and Belgium: Children’s Homes and other JLC-Supported institutions”) contains a brief overview concerning children’s institutions supported by the JLC in France and Belgium. The documents date back to 1948.

  19. Jewish Labor Committee Collection Photographs.

    This collection is of great interest for this guide. It contains photographs on aid, cultural activities, the children adoptation program etc. provided by the Jewish Labor Committee in the immediate postwar years. In “Subseries B: Holocaust and Jewish Life in Europe under the Nazis” of “Series I” we find photographs and “mixed materials” on Belgium, 1939-1945 (box 1 folder nr. 9). They mostly consist of poor quality copy prints of news service photographs. Box 1, folder nr. 26 of “Subseries C: Postwar Aid Activities” consists of photographs and “mixed materials” regarding “Belgium, Left Poa...

  20. Memoir collection.

    The Memoir collection of the Leo Baeck Institute holds thousands of mostly unpublished autobiographical accounts and memoirs. Around a quarter of them were written by women. Searching the Center for Jewish History database, we find that the descriptions of a few dozens of memoirs contain the words such as “Belgium”, “Brussels”, “Antwerp” etc. The memoirs relevant for this guide contain descriptions of, for example, life in Belgium (mostly in the interwar period), emigration to and temporary residence in Belgium after 1933, the situation of the German-Jewish refugees in Belgium, experiences ...