Germany

History

Adolf Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Within half a year, his National Socialist German Workers’ Party succeeded in establishing a one-party dictatorship. Political enemies of the Nazis were taken into “protective custody” and held in concentration camps under emergency regulations. After the death of Reich President Paul von Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler declared himself head of state. As of 1938, the German Reich expanded by force, annexing Austria and the Czech Sudetenland. They invaded the remaining Czech lands in March 1939. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, thus provoking declarations of war by Poland’s allies Great Britain and France. During the ensuing Second World War, German troops occupied much of continental Europe. Throughout the areas under German control and in territories controlled by its allies, apparent and actual resisters as well as “racial” undesirables were persecuted and murdered. Most German territory was occupied by the Allies by the spring of 1945. The German army unconditionally surrendered to the Allies in May 1945.

In early 1933, the German Reich had a total population of over 65 million inhabitants. About 552,000 of them were adherents of the Jewish faith. Many of them opted for emigration when they were threatened by Hitler’s rise to power. As antisemitism was a cornerstone of his Nazi Party’s ideology, it was quickly put into practice. Supported by a prevalent antisemitic sentiment in Germany, the Nazis propagated their pseudo-scientific “racial” anti-Jewish beliefs, managing to exclude German Jews both socially and economically: According to the 1939 census, which applied “racist” criteria, there remained approximately 242,000 so-called “full Jews”, some 20,000 of whom were not adherents of the Jewish faith. The Nazis considered 85,000 other people as “half-Jews” and “quarter-Jews”, i.e. people with a certain degree of Jewish descent.

First, a Reich-wide boycott of Jewish businesses was implemented in April 1933 and all Jews were dismissed from state employment. In 1935, the racist Nuremberg Laws forbade marital and sexual relations between Germans of non-Jewish descent and those of Jewish descent, unless they were already married. Jewish businesses and properties were subject to “Aryanisation”, which amounted to full-scale expropriation of the Jews in Germany. After leaving behind most of their possessions, many of those who successfully emigrated from Germany during the 1930s settled in European countries, which were later affected by the Holocaust. During a Reich-wide pogrom in November 1938, practically all synagogues in Germany were systematically attacked and destroyed, Jewish shops and homes looted, hundreds killed and some 30,000 Jewish men taken to concentration camps. German antisemitic ideology and propaganda increasingly affected Germany’s allies and spread to all occupied areas.

The remaining 214,000 Jews in Germany were almost completely isolated, suffered from radically reduced rations and soon had to move to special “Jewish houses”. They were now obliged to join the Reich Association of Jews in Germany (Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland), which was subjected to the Gestapo; many Jews were subjected to forced labour and the first attempts at mass deportations were made in 1939/40. In autumn 1941 the obligatory “Jewish Star” was introduced and the few remaining possibilities of emigration were shut off. For all but a small minority of Jews, mostly those protected by so-called “mixed” marriages, the deportations “to the East” began. There, they were either murdered upon arrival or temporarily left in impossible living conditions. Ultimately, those who survived were sent on to extermination camps. Very few of the deportees survived the war. Most early deportations went to the Reichskommissariat Ostland, the Litzmannstadt Ghetto or camps and ghettos in the General Government in occupied Poland; later deportations were mostly headed to the Theresienstadt Ghetto or directly to Auschwitz. As of mid-1943, the Reich was declared “free of Jews”; the remaining 20,000 Jews, most of them in “mixed marriages” or of “mixed race”, were completely excised from German law and were now entirely subjected to the Gestapo. Only very few were able to go into hiding.
Since mid-1944, Jewish forced labourers from areas outside of the Reich entered concentration camps within Germany. As the Allies approached, a disproportionately large number of members of the large Jewish group among the prisoners put on death marches died. Overall, about 130,000 Jews deported from Germany (and 35,000 German Jews deported from other countries) perished in the Holocaust.

Archival Situation

Germany exhibits a highly differentiated archival system without much centralisation. In addition to the Federal Archives and their departments (governed by the Bundesarchivgesetz or Federal Archive Law), each Bundesland has its own State Archive, governed by the respective state archive law. There are over 1,300 municipal archives. The religious communities in Germany, first and foremost bodies and organisations of the Catholic and Protestant Churches, exhibit a rich array of archival institutions. There are also university archives, archives of noble houses and a number of other, mostly topical archives as well as libraries holding archival material.

EHRI Research (Summary)

Key institutions identified by EHRI include the Bundesarchiv (Federal Archive with all its departments) and the respective state archives (Landes-, Hauptstaats- and Staatsarchive) of the German Bundesländer as well as the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Berlin (for former Prussian institutions), which hold surviving files of central and regional administrative bodies, occupation authorities, the Nazi Party, personnel and membership files as well as post-war investigations. Similar holdings can be found in the Nazi period archive assembled by the East German State Security Service (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS or “Stasi”), now held by the Behörde des Bundesbeauftragten für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (BStU). Municipal archives most pertinent to Holocaust research include the city archives of Nuremberg and Frankfurt am Main; the archives of concentration camp memorial sites (pre-eminently Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen), other memorials (Stiftung Denkmal, Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz) and research institutions such as the Institute of Contemporary History Munich-Berlin (Institut für Zeitgeschichte München-Berlin, IfZ); the Evangelical Central Archive and the Centrum Judaicum Archiv in Berlin; and the supranational International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen. EHRI has identified a number of guides on German archives. For an overview, see the extensive report.

EHRI Research (Extensive)

A. EHRI approach to Germany: Pre-existing research and archival guides, expert support

In the case of Germany, research on the Holocaust has been conducted worldwide and for decades now. It follows that a full and up-to-date account of the available literature cannot be given here. However, a reference to the 16 volume series „Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der europäischen Juden durch das nationalsozialistische Deutschland 1933-1945“, which is co-published by EHRI-partner Institute for Contemporary History Munich-Berlin (Institut für Zeitgeschichte München-Berlin, IfZ), especially to volumes 1, 2 and 3 (already published) and volumes 6 and 11, which were still in preparation at the time of writing this report, is appropriate. All volumes contain introductions based on international research. A translation of the series into English is in preparation.

With the help of IfZ, EHRI was able to identify a number of Holocaust-relevant online resources and archival guides on Germany.

An important online resource is the Zentrale Datenbank Nachlässe, provided by the Bundesarchiv, at http://www.nachlassdatenbank.de/

The following archival guides are also available:

  • [2009] Archive in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Ein Adressenverzeichnis(Münster: Ardey, 2009). Book + CD-ROM [lists all archives],
  • [1996-2001] Jersch-Wenzel, Stefi & Andreas Reinke (eds), Quellen zur Geschichte der Juden in den Archiven der neuen Bundesländer (München: Saur, 1996-2001, multiple volumes, 1-6b),
  • [1995] Bauch, Herbert, Quellen zu Widerstand und Verfolgung unter der NS-Diktatur in hessischen Archiven. Übersicht über die Bestände in Archiven und Dokumentationsstellen, Wiesbaden 1995,
  • [1995] Boberach, Heinz (ed.), Inventar archivalischer Quellen des NS-Staates. Die Überlieferungen von Behörden und Einrichtungen des Reichs, der Länder und der NSDAP, Teil 2 (München u.a.: Saur, 1995),
    Also included in the commercial database is “Deutsche Geschichte im 20. Jahrhundert Online: Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, Widerstand und Exil 1933-1945”, http://db.saur.de/DGO.
  • [1994] Leaman, George & Robert Wolfe, The holdings of the Berlin Document Center. A guide to the collections (Berlin: Berlin Document Center, 1994),
  • [1994] Post, Bernhard, Jüdische Geschichte in Hessen erforschen. Ein Wegweiser zu Archiven, Forschungsstätten und Hilfsmitteln, Wiesbaden 1994,
  • [1991] Boberach, Heinz (ed.), Inventar archivalischer Quellen des NS-Staates. Die Überlieferungen von Behörden und Einrichtungen des Reichs, der Länder und der NSDAP, Teil 1 (München u.a.: Saur, 1991),
    Also included in the commercial database is “Deutsche Geschichte im 20. Jahrhundert Online: Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, Widerstand und Exil 1933-1945”, http://db.saur.de/DGO.
  • [1977] Granier, Gerhard, Josef Henke & Klaus Oldenhage (eds). Das Bundesarchiv und seine Bestände (Boppard am Rhein: Harald Boldt Verlag, 1977 3rd edition),
  • [1962-1972] Kent, George O. (ed.), A Catalog of Files and Microfilms of the German Foreign Ministry Archives 1920-1945 (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1962-1972, 4 vol.). (Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes).

Finally, there is an important edition of sound recordings which deserves to be mentioned:

  • Audiovisuelle Quellen zur Geschichte und Kultur des europäischen Judentums und zur Geschichte und Wirkung des Holocaust. Hrsg. von Friedrich P. Kahlenberg, Julius H. Schoeps und Hanno Loewy Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 1996-1997.

B. Characteristics of the German archival system and specific challenges

Germany exhibits a highly differentiated archival system without much centralisation. In addition to the Federal Archives and their departments (governed by the Bundesarchivgesetz or Federal Archive Law), each Bundesland has its own State Archive, governed by the respective state archive law. There are over 1,300 municipal archives. The religious communities in Germany, first and foremost bodies and organisations of the Catholic and Protestant Churches, exhibit a rich array of archival institutions. There are also university archives, archives of noble houses and a number of other, mostly topical archives as well as libraries holding archival material.

Key institutions identified by EHRI include the Bundesarchiv (Federal Archive with all its departments) and the respective state archives (Landes-, Hauptstaats- and Staatsarchive) of the German Bundesländer as well as the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Berlin (for former Prussian institutions), which hold surviving files of central and regional administrative bodies, occupation authorities, the Nazi Party, personnel and membership files as well as post-war investigations; similar holdings can be found in the Nazi period archive assembled by the East German State Security Service (“Stasi”) now held by the BStU; municipal archives most pertinent to Holocaust research include the city archives of Nuremberg and Frankfurt am Main; the archives of concentration camp memorial sites (pre-eminently Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen), other memorials (Stiftung Denkmal, Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz) and research institutions (such as the Institute of Contemporary History Munich–Berlin); the Evangelical Central Archive and the Centrum Judaicum Archiv in Berlin; and the supranational International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen.

C. EHRI identification and description results on Germany

C. I. In Germany

In Germany, EHRI has identified about 331 repositories, including a number of memorial sites and documentation centres concerning the Holocaust or, more generally, the Third Reich dictatorship, which can be found in seven of the 16 German Bundesländer (Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Thuringia):

  1. Action Comitee Society “Dokumentations- und Informationszentrum Emslandlager (DIZ)” in Papenburg,
  2. Bergen-Belsen Memorial (Gedenkstätte Bergen-Belsen) in Lohheide,
  3. Buchenwald Memorial (Gedenkstätte Buchenwald),
  4. Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site (KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau),
  5. Flossenbuerg Concentration Camp Memorial (KZ Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg),
  6. Foundation Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas)
  7. Foundation of Brandenburg Memorials (Stiftung Brandenburgische Gedenkstätten) in Fürstenberg/Havel,
  8. Foundation of Memorials in Saxony (Stiftung Sächsischer Gedenkstätten) in Dresden,
  9. House of the Wannsee Conference (Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz)
  10. Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen Archive (Gedenkstätte und Museum Sachsenhausen-Archiv) in Oranienburg,
  11. Memorial Site Neuengamme (KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme),
  12. Mittelbau-Dora Memorial (KZ-Gedenkstätte Mittelbau-Dora),
  13. Ravensbrück Memorial Site (Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ravensbrück) in Fürstenberg/Havel,
  14. Topography of Terror (Topographie des Terrors) (Berlin),

Below are the other repositories identified by EHRI, ordered by Bundesland:

Baden-Wurttemberg/Baden-Württemberg:

  1. Albstadt City Archives (Stadtarchiv Albstadt),
  2. Archbishopric Archives in Freiburg (Erzbischöfliches Archiv Freiburg),
  3. Bad Buchau City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bad Buchau),
  4. Baden-Württemberg Compensation Office (Landesamt für Besoldung und Versorgung Baden-Württemberg – Wiedergutmachungsstelle in Fellbach),
  5. Biberach District Archives (Kreisarchiv Biberach),
  6. Business Archive (Wirtschaftsarchiv) in Stuttgart,
  7. Central Archives for Research on the History of the Jews in Germany (Zentralarchiv zur Erforschung der Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland) in Heidelberg,
  8. Central Repository of the Regional Judicial Administration/Central Office for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes (Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen) in Ludwigsburg,
  9. Central State Archives of Stuttgart (Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart),
  10. DaimlerChrysler Corporate Archive (DaimlerChrysler Classic Konzernarchiv) in Stuttgart,
  11. Documentation Centre Oberer Kuhberg (Dokumentationszentrum Oberer Kuhberg) in Ulm,
  12. Federal Archives, Ludwigsburg (Documents of the Central Office of the Land Judicial Authorities for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes) (Bundesarchiv, Ludwigsburg (Unterlagen der Zentralen Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen)),
  13. Federal Archives, Department Military Archives (Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv) in Freiburg/Breisgau,
  14. Freiburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Freiburg),
  15. Freiburg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Freiburg),
  16. General State Archives of Karlsruhe (Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe),
  17. The German Arhives for Diaries (Deutsches Tagebucharchiv) in Emmendingen,
  18. Heidenheim City Archive (Stadtarchiv Heidenheim an der Brenz),
  19. Jewish Community Freiburg (Jüdische Gemeinde Freiburg),
  20. Jewish Community Mannheim (Jüdische Gemeinde Mannheim),
  21. Jewish Community Stuttgart (Jüdische Gemeinde Stuttgart),
  22. Jewish Museum Göppingen (Jüdisches Museum Göppingen),
  23. Karlsruhe City Archive (Stadtarchiv Karlsruhe),
  24. Ludwigsburg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg),
  25. Municipal History Institute of the City of Bühl (Stadtgeschichtliches Institut Bühl),
  26. Museum of the History of Christians and Jews (Museum zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden),
  27. Obersulm Municipal Archive (Gemeindearchiv Obersulm),
  28. Regional Church Archive Baden-Württemberg (Landeskirchliches Archiv Baden-Wurttemberg) in Stuttgart,
  29. Rexingen City District Archive (Stadtteilarchiv Rexingen),
  30. Robert Bosch GmbH Corporate Archives (Unternehmungsarchiv Robert Bosch GmbH) in Stuttgart,
  31. Rottweil City Archive (Stadtarchiv Rottweil),
  32. Rottweil District Archive (Kreisarchiv Rottweil),
  33. Sigmaringen State Archives (Staatsarchiv Sigmaringen),
  34. Stuttgart City Archive (Stadtarchiv Stuttgart),
  35. Tübingen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Tübingen),
  36. Tübingen District Archive (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Tübingen),
  37. Ulm City Archive (Stadtarchiv Ulm),
  38. University Archive, Eberhard-Karls-University (Eberhard-Karls-Universitätsarchiv) in Tübingen,
  39. Waiblingen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Waiblingen),

Bavaria/Bayern:

  1. Amberg City Archives (Stadtarchiv Amberg),
  2. Archive of the Archbishopric Munich and Freising (Archiv des Erzbistums München und Freising),
  3. Archives of the Archbishopric of Bamberg (Archiv des Erzbistums Bamberg),
  4. Augsburg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Augsburg),
  5. Bamberg Municipal Archives (Stadtarchiv Bamberg),
  6. Bamberg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Bamberg),
  7. Bavarian Business Archive Munich (Bayerisches Wirtschaftsarchiv München),
  8. Bavarian Main State Archives (Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv) in Munich,
  9. Bertelsmann Corporate Archive (Wirtschaftsarchiv Bertelsmann),
  10. Coburg City Archives (Stadtarchiv Coburg),
  11. Coburg State Archive s (Staatsarchiv Coburg),
  12. Dinkelsbühl City Archives (Stadtarchiv Dinkelsbühl),
  13. District Hospital of Kaufbeuren (Kaufbeuren Bezirkskrankenhaus),
  14. Documentation Centre Nazi Party Rally Grounds (Archiv des Dokumentationszentrums Reichsparteitagsgelände),
  15. Evangelical-Lutheran Regional Church Archive, Bavarian Church (Landeskirchliches Archiv der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche in Bayern) in Nürnberg,
  16. Institute of Contemporary History –Archive (Institut für Zeitgeschichte München-Berlin, –Archiv – IfZ –Archiv),
  17. Jewish Community Mittelfranken (Jüdische Gemeinde Mittelfranken)
  18. Jewish Community Nuremberg (Jüdische Gemeinde Nürnberg),
  19. Jewish Culture Museum of Augsburg (Jüdisches Kulturmuseum Augsburg),
  20. Jewish Museum Franconia (Jüdisches Museum Franken),
  21. Kitzingen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Kitzingen),
  22. Landshut State Archives (Staatsarchiv Landshut),
  23. Memmingen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Memmingen),
  24. Munich City Archive (Stadtarchiv München),
  25. Munich State Archives (Staatsarchiv München),
  26. Nuremberg City Archives (Stadtarchiv Nürnberg),
  27. Nuremberg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Nürnberg),
  28. Nuremberg State Archives – Lichtenau Branch (Staatsarchiv Nürnberg –Außenstelle),
  29. Siemens Corporate Archives (Archiv der Siemens AG) in Munich,
  30. State Finances Office - Munich Branch, State Compensation Office (Oberfinanzdirektion München – Landesentschädigungsamt),
  31. The Deutsches Museum Archives (Archiv des Deutschen Museums),
  32. Würzburg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Würzburg),

Berlin:

  1. Academy Archive (Stiftung Archiv der Akademie der Künste),
  2. Archive of the New Synagogue Berlin – Centrum Judaicum Foundation (Archiv der Stiftung Neue Synagoge Berlin – Centrum Judaicum, CJA),
  3. Berlin City Museum (Stiftung Stadtmuseum Berlin),
  4. Berlin Restitution Administration (Landesverwaltungsamt Berlin Abteilung I – Entschädigungsbehörde),
  5. Berlin State Archive (Landesarchiv Berlin),
  6. Center for Research on Anti-Semitism (Zentrum für Antisemitismusforschung, ZfA),
  7. Charlottenburg District Court - Commercial Register (Amtsgericht Charlottenburg – Handelsregister in Berlin),
  8. Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt),
  9. Diocesan Archives of Berlin (Diözesanarchiv Berlin),
  10. District Attorney Office Berlin (Staatsanwaltschaft beim Landgericht Berlin),
  11. Evangelical Central Archive (Evangelisches Zentralarchiv, EZA) in Berlin,
  12. Federal Archives, Berlin-Lichterfelde (Bundesarchiv Berlin-Lichterfelde),
  13. Federal Archives, Berlin-Wilmersdorf (Department Film Archives), (Bundesarchiv-Abteilung Filmarchiv, Berlin-Wilmersdorf),
  14. German Statutory Pension Insurance Scheme (Deutscher Rentenversicherungsbund),
  15. Humboldt University Archives (Humboldt-Universität, Universitätsarchiv),
  16. Jewish Museum Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin),
  17. Magnus-Hirschfeld-Society (Magnus-Hirschfeld-Society),
  18. Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office (Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes, PA-AA),
  19. Protestant State Church Archive in Berlin (Evangelisches Landeskirchliches Archiv in Berlin),
  20. Secret State Archives Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz) in Berlin-Dahlem,
  21. The Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former GDR (Der Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, BStU),

Brandenburg:

  1. Angermünde City Archives (Stadtarchiv Angermünde),
  2. Barnim District Archives (Kreisarchiv Barnim) in Eberswalde,
  3. Bernau City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bernau),
  4. Brandenburg Cathedral Foundation Archive (Domstiftsarchiv Brandenburg in Brandenburg an der Havel),
  5. Brandenburg Main State Archives (Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv) in Potsdam,
  6. Cottbus City Archives (Stadtarchiv Cottbus),
  7. County Archive of Oder-Spree County (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Oder-Spree in Beeskow),
  8. Federal Archive, Dahlwitz-Hoppegarten Federal Archive: Intermediate Archive (Bundesarchiv-Zwischenarchiv Dahlwitz-Hoppegarten),
  9. Eisenhüttenstadt City Archive (Stadtarchiv Eisenhüttenstadt),
  10. Forst (Lausitz) City Archive (Stadtarchive Forst (Lausitz),
  11. Forst District Archive (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Forst),
  12. Ostprignitz-Ruppin District Archive (Landkreis Ostprignitz-Ruppin/Archiv) in Neuruppin,
  13. Perleberg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Perleberg),
  14. Potsdam-Mittelmark District Archives (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Potsdam-Mittelmark) in Bad Belzig,
  15. Seelow District Archive (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Seelow),
  16. Teltow City Archive (Stadtarchiv Teltow),
  17. Vetschau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Vetschau),

Bremen:

  1. Bremen Restitution Administration (Senator für Arbeit, Frauen, Gesundheit, Jugend und Soziales der Freien und Hansestadt Bremen – Landesamt für Wiedergutmachung),
  2. Bremen State Archives (Staatsarchiv Bremen),
  3. Jewish Community Bremerhaven (Jüdische Gemeinde Bremerhaven),

Hamburg:

  1. Hamburg Restitution Administration (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Behörde für Soziales und Familie, Abteilung Soziale Entschädigung, Amt für Wiedergutmachung),
  2. Hamburg State Archives (Staatsarchiv Hamburg),
  3. Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung),
  4. Institute for the History of the German Jews (Institut für die Geschichte der deutschen Juden),
  5. Jewish Community Hamburg (Jüdische Gemeinde Hamburg),
  6. Museum for Hamburg History (Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte),

Hesse/Hessen:

  1. Alsfeld City Archives (Stadtarchiv Alsfeld),
  2. Bad Vilbel City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bad Vilbel),
  3. Bibliographia Judaica e.V. Archive (Archiv Bibliographia Judaica e.V. – Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main),
  4. Breitenau Memorial Museum (Gedenkstätte Breitenau),
  5. Büdingen City Archives (Stadtarchiv Büdingen),
  6. Business Archives of Darmstadt (Hessisches Wirtschaftsarchiv Darmstadt),
  7. Darmstadt City Archives (Stadtarchiv Darmstadt),
  8. Darmstadt Government Headquarters – Compensation Authority (Regierungspräsidium Darmstadt – Entschädigungsbehörde),
  9. Deutsche Bank Historical Archive (Historisches Archiv der Deutschen Bank) in Frankfurt am Main,
  10. German Literature Archive Marbach (Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach),
  11. Documentary Archives of the German Resistance (Dokumentationsarchiv des Deutschen Widerstandes) in Frankfurt am Main,
  12. Evangelical Central Archives of Hesse and Nassau (Zentralarchiv der Evangelischen Kirche in Hessen und Nassau),
  13. Fritz Bauer Institute (Fritz Bauer Institut) in Frankfurt am Main,
  14. Frankfurt Institute of Local History (Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt am Main),
  15. Fulda Archbishopric Archive (Bistumsarchiv Fulda),
  16. Groß-Gerau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Groß-Gerau),
  17. Hesse Main State Archives (Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv),
  18. Hessian State Archive in Marburg (Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg),
  19. Hessian State Archives Darmstadt (Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt),
  20. International Tracing Service (Internationaler Suchdienst) in Bad Arolsen,
  21. Jewish Community Nauheim (Jüdische Gemeinde Nauheim),
  22. Jewish Community Wiesbaden (Jüdische Gemeinde Wiesbaden),
  23. Jewish Museum Frankfurt (Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt am Main),
  24. Kassel City Archive (Stadtarchiv Kassel),
  25. Offenbach am Main City Archive (Stadtarchiv Offenbach am Main),
  26. Spiegelgasse Active Museum of German-Jewish History in Wiesbaden (Aktives Museum Spiegelgasse für Deutsch-Jüdische Geschichte in Wiesbaden e.V.)
  27. Study Group on the German Resistance (Studienkreis Deutscher Widerstand/Dokumentationsarchiv) in Frankfurt am Main,

Lower Saxony/Niedersachsen:

  1. Barsinghausen City Archives (Stadtarchiv Barsinghausen),
  2. Braunschweig City Archives (Stadtarchiv Braunschweig),
  3. Celle City Archives (Stadtarchiv Celle),
  4. City Archives Buxtehude (Stadtarchiv Buxtehude),
  5. County Archive of Harburg County (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Harburg),
  6. Cuxhaven District Archiv (Archiv des Landkreises Cuxhaven),
  7. Diocesan Archive Osnabrueck (Diözesanarchiv Osnabrück),
  8. Goslar City Archive (Stadtarchiv Goslar),
  9. Hanover City Archive (Stadtarchiv Hannover)
  10. Lehrte City Archive (Stadtarchiv Lehrte),
  11. Lower Saxon State Archives Aurich Branch (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv - Standort Aurich),
  12. Lower Saxon State Archives Bückeburg (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv -Standort Bückeburg),
  13. Lower Saxon State Archives Oldenburg (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv -Standort Oldenburg),
  14. Lower Saxony Restitution Administration (Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Bezüge und Versorgung – Dezernat 12: Wiedergutmachung),
  15. Lüneburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Lüneburg),
  16. Lower Saxon State Archive - Hannover Branch (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Standort Hannover),
  17. Lower Saxon State Archive - Osnabrück Branch (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Standort Osnabrück),
  18. Peine City Archive (Stadtarchiv Peine),
  19. Regional Church Archive (Landeskirchliches Archiv) in Hannover,
  20. Sarstedt City Archive (Stadtarchiv Sarstedt),
  21. Stade City Archive (Stadtarchiv Stade),
  22. Lower Saxon State Archives Stade (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Standort Stade),
  23. State Archive of Lower Saxony (Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv) in Osnabrück,
  24. Uelzen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Uelzen),
  25. Winsen an der Luhe City Archive (Stadtarchiv Winsen an der Luhe),
  26. Lower Saxon State Archives - Wolfenbüttel Brach (Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv – Standort Wolfenbüttel),

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania/Mecklenburg-Vorpommern:

  1. Archive of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University (Archiv der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald),
  2. Archive of the Hanseatic City of Rostock (Archiv der Hansestadt Rostock),
  3. Archive of the Hanseatic City of Stralsund (Stadtarchiv der Hansestadt Stralsund),
  4. Barth City Archives (Stadtarchiv Barth),
  5. Demmin District Archive – Malchin Branch (Landkreis Demmin-Kreisarchiv, Außenstelle Malchin),
  6. District Archive Güstrow (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Güstrow),
  7. District Archive of Ludwigslust (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Ludwigslust),
  8. Dömitz Museum Fortress (Museum Festung Dömitz),
  9. Gadebusch City Archive (Stadtarchiv Gadebusch),
  10. Grabow City Archive (Stadtarchiv Grabow)
  11. Library of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald (Bibliothek der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald),
  12. Lübz City Archive (Stadtarchiv Lübz),
  13. Main State Archives of Schwerin (Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin),
  14. Malchow City Archive (Stadtarchiv Malchow),
  15. Mecklenburg Regional Church Archive of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Landeskirchliches Archiv der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Landeskirche Mecklenburgs) in Schwerin,
  16. Neustrelitz City Archive (Stadtarchiv Neustrelitz),
  17. Parchim City Archive (Stadtarchiv Parchim),
  18. Rehna City Archive (Stadtarchiv Rehna),
  19. Röbel City Archive (Stadtarchiv Röbel),
  20. Schwerin City Archive (Stadtarchiv Schwerin),
  21. Sternberg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Sternberg),
  22. University Archive Rostock (Universitätsarchiv Rostock),

North Rhine-Westphalia/Nordrhein-Westfalen:

  1. Archbishopric Archive Essen (Bistumsarchiv Essen),
  2. Archbishopric Archive Muenster (Bistumsarchiv Münster),
  3. Archive of the Evangelic Church (Archiv der Evangelischen Kirche im Rheinland) in Düsseldorf,
  4. Archives of the Church of Lippe (Archiv der Lippischen Landeskirche) in Detmold,
  5. Bertelsmann Foundation (Stiftung Bertelsmann) in Gütersloh,
  6. Bielefeld City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bielefeld),
  7. Bochum City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bochum),
  8. Business Archives Dortmund (Westfälisches Wirtschaftsarchiv, WWA),
  9. Dortmund City Archives (Stadtarchiv Dortmund),
  10. Dortmund Police Archives (Polizeiarchiv Dortmund),
  11. Düsseldorf City Archive (Stadtarchiv Düsseldorf),
  12. Düsseldorf District Government (Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf),
  13. Federal Central Register (Bundeszentralkartei in Düsseldorf),
  14. Friedrich-Ebert Foundation Social Democratic Archive (Archiv der sozialen Demokratie der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung) in Bonn,
  15. Fröndenberg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Fröndenberg (Ruhr),
  16. County Archive of Gütersloh County (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Gütersloh, Rheda-Wiedenbrück),
  17. Hilden City Archive (Stadtarchiv Hilden),
  18. Historical Archive of the City of Cologne (Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln),
  19. Historical Archives of the Archbishop in Cologne (Historisches Archiv des Erzbistums Köln),
  20. Institute for Comparative Urban History (Institut für vergleichende Stadtgeschichte) in Münster,
  21. Jewish Community Bochum (Jüdische Gemeinde Bochum),
  22. Jewish Community Cologne (Jüdische Gemeinde Köln),
  23. Jewish Community Essen (Jüdische Gemeinde Essen),
  24. Jewish Community Wuppertal (Jüdische Gemeinde Wuppertal),
  25. Kleve City Archive (Stadtarchiv Kleve),
  26. Main State Archive North Rhine-Westfalia (Hauptstaatsarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen) in Düsseldorf,
  27. Mönchengladbach City Archive (Stadtarchiv Mönchengladbach),
  28. Mühlheim an der Ruhr City Archive (Stadtarchiv Mühlheim an der Ruhr)
  29. Münster City Archive (Stadtarchiv Münster),
  30. North Rhine-Westphalia State Archives, Department Rhineland (Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abteilung Rheinland),
  31. North Rhine-Westphalian State Archives, Department Ostwestfalen-Lippe (Landesarchiv NRW, Abt. Ostwestfalen-Lippe) in Detmold,
  32. Old Synagogue, Essen (Alte Synagoge Essen),
  33. Remscheid City Archive (Stadtarchiv Remscheid),
  34. Rhein-Westfalia Business Archive in Cologne (Rheinisch-Westfälisches Wirtschaftsarchiv Köln),
  35. North Rhine-Westphalia State Archive, Department, Westphalia (Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abteilung Westfalen) in Münster,
  36. Witten City Archive (Stadtarchiv Witten),

Rhineland-Palatinate/Rheinland-Pfalz:

  1. Federal Archives, Koblenz (Bundesarchiv Koblenz),
  2. Ingelheim am Rhein City Archive (Stadtarchiv Ingelheim am Rhein),
  3. Jewish Community Koblenz (Jüdische Gemeinde Koblenz),
  4. Jewish Community Mainz (Jüdische Gemeinde Mainz),
  5. Koblenz Main State Archives (Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz),
  6. Landau in der Pfalz City Archive and Museum (Stadtarchiv und Museum Landau in der Pfatz),
  7. Office for Restitution in Saarburg (Amt für Wiedergutmachung Saarburg),
  8. Speyer State Archives (Landesarchiv Speyer),
  9. Trier City Archive (Stadtarchiv Trier),

Saarland:

  1. Saarbrücken District Archives (Landesarchiv Saarbrücken),
  2. Saarbrücken State Office of Social Services, Health and Consumer Protection (Landesamt für Soziales, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz),

Saxony/Sachsen:

  1. Archives at the German Hygiene Museum (Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Archiv) in Dresden,
  2. Borna City Archives (Stadtarchiv Borna),
  3. Chemnitz City Archives (Stadtarchiv Chemnitz),
  4. Coswig City Archives (Stadtarchiv Coswig),
  5. District Archive of Löbau (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Löbau),
  6. Dresden City Archive (Stadtarchiv der Landeshauptstadt Dresden),
  7. Eilenburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Eilenburg),
  8. Ephraim-Carlebach-Foundation (Ephraim-Carlebach Stiftung) in Leipzig,
  9. Falkenstein (Vogtland) City Archive (Stadtarchiv Falkenstein (Vogtland),
  10. German Central Repository for Genealogy in the Saxon State Archives Leipzig (Deutsche Zentralstelle für Genealogie im Sächsischen Staatsarchiv Leipzig),
  11. German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) in Leipzig,
  12. German Photo Library: State Library of Dresden (Deutsche Fotothek: Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden),
  13. Grimma City Archive (Stadtarchiv Grimma),
  14. Hainichen Municipal Archive, Municipal Administration (Gemeindearchiv Hainichen, Gemeindeverwaltung),
  15. Hatikwa Association (Hatikwa Verein) in Dresden,
  16. Jewish Community Dresden (Jüdische Gemeinde Dresden),
  17. Jewish Community Leipzig (Jüdische Gemeinde Leipzig),
  18. Jewish Community Magdeburg (Jüdische Gemeinde Magdeburg),
  19. Landkreis Freiberg, Kreisarchiv (Freiberg District Archive),
  20. Leipzig City Archive (Stadtarchiv Leipzig),
  21. Mittweida City Archive (Stadtarchiv Mittweida),
  22. Saxon Main State Archive, Dresden (Sächsisches Staatsarchiv – Hauptstaatsarchiv Dresden),
  23. Saxon Regional Church Archive of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Landeskirchenarchiv der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Landeskirche Sachsens) in Dresden,
  24. Saxon State Archives (Sächsisches Staatsarchiv) in Leipzig,
  25. Simon Dubnow Institute at Leipzig University (Simon-Dubnow-Institut für jüdische Geschichte und Kultur e.V. an der Universität Leipzig),
  26. Werdau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Werdau),
  27. Zittau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Zittau),
  28. Zwickau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Zwickau),

Saxony-Anhalt/Sachsen-Anhalt:

  1. Aken City Archives (Stadtarchiv Aken),
  2. Aschersleben-Straßfurter District Archives (Kreisarchiv Aschersleben-Straßfurter Landkreis),
  3. Bitterfeld-Wolfen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Ortsteil Bitterfeld),
  4. Börde District Archive (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Börde in Oschersleben (Bode)),
  5. Derenburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Derenburg),
  6. Gardelegen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Gardelegen),
  7. Gernrode City Archive (Stadtarchiv Gernrode),
  8. Gommern City Archive (Stadtarchiv Gommern),
  9. Historical City Archive of Merseburg (Historisches Stadtarchiv Merseburg),
  10. Jerichower District Archive (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Jerichower Land),
  11. Jewish Community Halle (Jüdische Gemeinde Halle),
  12. Magdeburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Magdeburg),
  13. Main State Archive of Sachsen-Anhalt, Archive of Magdeburg (Landeshauptarchiv Sachsen-Anhalt, Landesarchiv Magdeburg),
  14. Osterburg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Osterburg),
  15. Sangerhausen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Sangerhausen),
  16. Schneeberg City Archive (Stadtarchiv Schneeberg),
  17. Schönebeck City Archive (Stadtarchiv Schönebeck (Elbe)),
  18. University Archive, Halle (Universitätsarchiv Halle),
  19. Weißenfels City Archive (Stadtarchiv Weißenfels),
  20. Westliche Altmark District Archive (Kreisarchiv Landkreis Westliche Altmark),
  21. Wolmirstedt City Archive (Stadtarchiv Wolmirstedt),

Schleswig-Holstein:

  1. Archive of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Archiv der Hansestadt Lübeck),
  2. Eutin City Archive (Stadtarchiv Eutin),
  3. Jewish Museum Glueckstadt (Jüdisches Museum Glückstadt),
  4. Kiel City Archive (Stadtarchiv Kiel),
  5. Ministry of Social Affairs, Health, Science and Equality of Land Schleswig-Holstein (Ministerium für Soziales, Gesundheit, Wissenschaft und Gleichstellung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein),
  6. Nordelbische Evangelical-Lutheran Church Archives (Nordelbisches Kirchenarchiv) in Kiel,
  7. Schleswig-Holstein State Archives (Landesarchiv Schleswig-Holstein) in Schleswig,

Thuringia/Thüringen:

  1. Archive of the Spiritual Commissariat of the Bishopric of Heiligenstadt (Bischöfliches Geistliches Kommissariat Heiligenstadt – Archiv),
  2. Bad Langensalza City Archives (Stadtarchiv Bad Langensalza),
  3. Barchfeld Municipal Archive (Gemeindearchiv Barchfeld),
  4. District Archive, Schmalkalden-Meiningen (Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen Kreisarchiv in Meiningen),
  5. Eisenach City Archive (Stadtarchiv Eisenach),
  6. Friedrichroda City Archive (Stadtarchiv Friedrichroda),
  7. Goethe and Schiller Archive (Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv),
  8. Ilmenau City Archive (Stadtarchiv Ilmenau),
  9. Jewish Community Erfurt (Jüdische Gemeinde Erfurt),
  10. Kranichfeld City Archive (Stadtarchiv Kranichfeld),
  11. Meuselwitz City Archive (Stadtarchiv Meuselwitz (Stadtverwaltung)),
  12. Nordhausen City Archive (Stadtarchiv Nordhausen),
  13. Nordhausen District Archive (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Nordhausen),
  14. Rudolstadt City Archive (Stadtarchiv Rudolstadt),
  15. Saale-Orla-Kreis District Archive (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Saale-Orla)
  16. Suhl City Archive (Stadtarchiv Suhl),
  17. Thuringia Main State Archives (Thüringisches Hauptstaatsarchiv) in Weimar,
  18. Thuringian State Archives, Altenburg (Thüringisches Staatsarchiv Altenburg),
  19. Wartburgkreis District Archives, Bad Salzungen Office (Kreisarchiv für den Wartburgkreis, Dienststelle Bad Salzungen),
  20. Weimar City Archive (Stadtarchiv Weimar),
  21. Weimar-Land District Archives (Kreisarchiv für den Landkreis Weimar-Land) in Apolda,

The EHRI portal includes collection descriptions provided by Bundesarchiv (BArch), the International Tracing Service (ITS) and the Institut für Zeitgeschichte (IfZ).

The Bundesarchiv is the main institution holding the remaining records generated by the central administrative bodies of the German Reich under National Socialist rule. In a first step, EHRI and the Bundesarchiv decided to focus on the Reich (“R”) and NSDAP (“NS”) record groups. Since almost all state administrations and Nazi Party organisations were involved either directly or indirectly with measures against Jews, no further selection of records was undertaken apart from the chronological one (i.e. collections with an end date of before and including 1932 were excluded from the import to the EHRI Portal). The Bundesarchiv also holds extensive holdings on post-war dealings with the Holocaust (e.g. compensation and judicial issues), as well as personal collections and film and photo materials. However, the inclusion of these holdings remains to be done. Descriptions from the Bundesarchiv for materials currently accessible at the Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes have equally been included in the EHRI portal. The Bundesarchiv Agency in Ludwigsburg holds the prosecution files of the Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes (Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen). These cover almost all violent crimes committed during the Nazi regime and the Holocaust.

The International Tracing Service (ITS) is a center for documenting National Socialist persecution and the liberated survivors. Former victims of Nazism and their families receive information regarding their incarceration, forced labor, and if available, postwar Allied assistance. The archives provide the foundation for research and education. ITS collections include original records generated by the ITS, correspondence, and copies from other institutions and archives that helped the ITS fulfilling its tasks. Having exclusively records that deal with National Socialist persecution and its aftermath almost all collections are relevant to EHRI. In a first step, ITS’s archivists and historians and EHRI have integrated the following sets of collections into the portal:

  1. Incarceration and persecution
  2. Registrations of Persons of non-German Nationality by German State Authorities
  3. Registrations and Files of Displaced Persons, Children and Missing Persons
  4. Special NSDAP Organizations and Activities.

For IfZ, the existing archive thesaurus was used for content selection. Giles Bennett and the IfZ Archive staff agreed on a selection of keywords identified as Holocaust-related that were used to select records from the IfZ database (public entries: http://archiv.ifz-muenchen.de) to be included in a data export for the EHRI portal. Unfortunately, the export of the full hierarchical list of each individual term connected with an individual record is not technically possible at this point, so that only the lowest level of the exported term is visible in the EHRI Portal. For record groups that are currently not reflected or not well reflected in the public IfZ database, collection descriptions were manually entered after coordination with the IfZ Archive.

C.II. In other countries

Due to frontier changes after the Second World War, a number of archives relevant to Holocaust research on Germany are today located in northern and western Poland, specifically in Gorzów Wielkopolski (formerly Landsberg an der Warthe), Koszalin/Köslin, Olsztyn/Allenstein, Opole/Oppeln, Szczecin/Stettin, Wrocław/Breslau and Zielona Góra/Grünberg:

Gorzów Wielkopolski:

  • the State Archive in Gorzów Wielkopolski (Archiwum Państwowe w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim).

Koszalin:

  • the State Archive in Koszalin (Archiwum Państwowe w Koszalinie) and its branches in:
    • Słupsk (AP w Koszalinie – Oddział w Słupsku),
    • Szczecinek (AP w Koszalinie – Oddział w Szczecinku).

Olsztyn:

  • the State Archive in Olsztyn (Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie) and its branch in:
    • Nidzica (AP w Olsztynie – Oddział w Nidzicy).

Opole:

  • the State Archive in Opole (Archiwum Państwowe w Opolu),
  • the Institute of National Remembrance Delegation in Opole (Delegatura Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w Opolu).

Szczecin:

  • the State Archive in Szczecin (Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie),
  • the Institute of National Remembrance Branch in Szczecin (Oddział Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w Szczecinie, OBUiAD).

Wrocław:

  • the State Archive in Wrocław (Archiwum Państwowe we Wrocławiu) and its branches in:
    • Jelenia Góra (AP we Wrocławiu – Oddział w Jeleniej Górze),
    • Kamieniec Ząbkowicki (AP we Wrocławiu – Oddział w Kamieńcu Ząbkowickim),
    • Legnica (AP we Wrocławiu – Oddział w Legnicy),
    • Lubań (AP we Wrocławiu – Oddział w Lubaniu).

Zielona Góra:

  • the State Archive of Zielona Góra in Stary Kiesielin (Archiwum Państwowe w Zielonej Górze z siedzibą w Starym Kisielinie).
    • Wilkowo near Świebodzin (AP w Zielonej Górze – Oddział w Wilkowie),
    • Żary (AP w Zielonej Górze – Oddział w Żarach).