During the Second World War, San Marino remained neutral. Three days after the fall of Benito Mussolini in Italy, the Partito Fascista Sammarinese (PFS)’s rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality. The Fascists regained power on 1 April 1944, but kept neutrality intact. When Allied forces advanced through Italy and attacked the German fortified positions at the so-called Gothic Line, San Marino accepted thousands of civilian refugees. In September 1944, it was briefly occupied by German forces, which were pushed out again by the British 8th Army in the Battle of San Marino. Allied troops withdrew from the country shortly afterwards.
During the Second World War, San Marino had some 15,000 inhabitants, including a dozen Jewish families. The tiny republic followed Italy’s lead in enacting a law against so-called mixed (Jewish - non-Jewish) marriages in 1942. There were a significant number of Jews among the many thousands of civilian refugees seeking shelter in San Marino.
The Archivio di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino are the national archives of San Marino. They have holdings on the Second World War period.
EHRI Research (Summary)
EHRI has yet to determine the exact number and importance of San Marinese archival holdings for Holocaust research.