The centuries old Principality of Liechtenstein became a sovereign state in 1806, and was closely aligned to Austria. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at then end of the First World War, Liechtenstein concluded a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Prince Franz I abdicated the throne in July 1938. He was married to Elisabeth von Gutmann, a Jewish woman from Vienna, who was singled out by local Liechtenstein Nazis as the target of antisemitic propaganda. He was succeeded by Prince Franz Joseph II. During the Second World War, Liechtenstein officially remained neutral.

Like many other countries, Liechtenstein tightened its immigration laws in 1938. Around 400 Jews sought refuge in Liechtenstein during the Holocaust. 235 were accepted, while 165 were turned back. 144 were allowed to become citizens in return for high fees. Liechtenstein had a total population of 10,800 in 1939.

Archival Situation

The Liechtenstein National Archives hold some Holocaust-related files.

EHRI Research (Summary)

EHRI listed the National Archives of Liechtenstein, and has yet to determine the exact nature and importance of Holocaust related holdings of this institution.