An end of Jewish Haggling Antisemitic poster by Fips depicting a Jew banging his head in response to Nazi German business

Language of Description
Alt. Identifiers
  • 1993.42.1
1 Jan 1936 - 31 Dec 1937
Level of Description
  • German
EHRI Partner

Extent and Medium

overall: Height: 51.000 inches (129.54 cm) | Width: 38.375 inches (97.473 cm)


Biographical History

Phillipp Rupprecht (1900-1975) was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He served in the German Navy during World War I. In 1920, he left Germany for Argentina, where he worked as a waiter and cowboy for several years. In the mid-1920s, he returned to Germany and worked as a cartoonist for the Fränkischen Tagespost, a Socialist newspaper. After drawing a cartoon of the Lord Mayor of Nuremberg, Hermann Luppe, Rupprecht was hired as an illustrator for the antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer, by Julius Streicher, publisher of the paper and a regional leader of the Nazi party. While there, Rupprecht worked under the pen name Fips and became known for his variations on the antisemitic stereotype of the bearded, bulging eyed, large-nosed Jew. In 1938, he illustrated the antisemitic children's book, Der Giftpilz (The Poison Mushroom), published by the Stürmer publishing house. He joined the German Navy in 1939, but was released to create propaganda for the Nazi party. Rupprecht stayed at the paper until the last issue was published on February 22, 1945, and his career ended with the defeat of Germany in May. After the war, Rupprecht was captured by the United States Army and held in the 7th Army Internee Camp #74 in Ludwigsburg, Germany. He was put on trial as part of the de-Nazification process and sentenced to six years hard labor. Rupprecht was released from Eichstätt prison on October 23, 1950. He married twice, had four children, and worked in Munich as a painter and decorator until his death.

Archival History

The poster was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1993 by Alex Kertesz.


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the Alex and Boots Kertesz Family

Funding Note: The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.

Scope and Content

German antisemitic propaganda poster encouraging Germans to fight against unfair Jewish business practices, by Philipp Rupprecht (Fips). The poster features a Jewish peddler banging his head in frustration when he sees storefront signs saying German businesses will no longer engage in Jewish haggling. The peddler has stereotypically exaggerated features: a long nose, a beard, red eyes, and heavyset. He is portrayed in shadowy, charcoal and black colors to emphasize the antisemitic trope of his untrustworthy nature, and to contrast the lighter colored, purer, Aryan storefront. The Nazis used propaganda to push the narrative that haggling Jewish peddlers were bad for German business and society. Nazi propaganda won the support of millions of Germans, affirmed Nazi ideas of racial superiority, and created an atmosphere that tolerated violence against Jews. They communicated their propaganda through art, music, film, radio, books, posters, and other published materials. Philipp Rupprecht, who used the penname Fips, was one of the Nazi’s preeminent propaganda creators. Rupprecht was an artist for Julius Streicher’s Der Stürmer, an antisemitic newspaper that prominently displayed Rupprecht’s work. His illustrations portrayed Jews as heartless and cruel, and featured discriminatory images of Jews with exaggerated facial features, and misshapen bodies. Rupprecht also illustrated the antisemitic children’s book Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom).

Conditions Governing Access

No restrictions on access

Conditions Governing Reproduction

No restrictions on use

Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements

Color, offset lithographic poster on off-white paper adhered to a linen backing. The poster depicts an image of a Jewish trader banging his head against a street signpost. The pole has a triangular sign with the word HALT, in black letters on a white background. The trader is stereotypically depicted with red eyes, a hooked nose, and darkly shaded. He is wearing a black coat with a black fedora style hat, has charcoal colored skin and carries a black box in his hands. Falling out of the box are various small goods. Four small Stars of David rise from the impact of his head hitting the pole, and his hat has been thrown into the air by the force of the movement. In front of him, across the street is a light red, pastel-colored storefront with several signs advertising fair priced, German quality goods. The artist signature and publisher name are both in the bottom right corner.




This description is derived directly from structured data provided to EHRI by a partner institution. This collection holding institution considers this description as an accurate reflection of the archival holdings to which it refers at the moment of data transfer.