Richard Grune lithograph of a torture scene witnessed in a concentration camp

Identifier
irn50607
Language of Description
English
Alt. Identifiers
  • 2012.316.10
Source
EHRI Partner

Extent and Medium

overall : 24.000 x 16.000 in. (60.96 x 40.64 cm.)

Black inked lithograph on white paper with a centrally positioned image of a guard and a bound prisoner, with a noose in the background. It s a smaller scaled version of the print. The lower right side of the image contains the artist's signature.

Lithographs (aat)

Creator(s)

Biographical History

Richard Grune was born on August 2, 1903, in Flensburg, Germany. He received formal art training at the Bauhaus school in Weimar, where his teachers included Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky. He moved to Berlin in February 1933, after the Nazi Party gained control of the government. In December 1934, he was arrested, one of seventy caught in a wave of related denunciations. Under interrogation, Grune admitted to being homosexual. He was held in protective custody for five months, then returned to his childhood home on the German-Danish border to stand trial for violating §175. In September 1936, Grune was convicted and sentenced to prison. Upon his release, the Gestapo returned Grune to protective custody, asserting that his sentence had been too lenient. In early October 1937, Grune was sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, until early April 1940, when he was transferred to Flossenbürg. Around April 1945, as American forces approached, Grune escaped during the evacuation of the camp and joined his sister in Kiel. He spent much of the remainder of his life in Spain, but later returned to Kiel, where he died in 1983, age 80 years. Richard Grune was born on August 2, 1903, in Flensburg, Germany. He received formal art training at the Bauhaus school in Weimar, where his teachers included Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky. He moved to Berlin in February 1933, after the Nazi Party gained control of the government. In December 1934, he was arrested, one of seventy caught in a wave of related denunciations. Under interrogation, Grune admitted to being homosexual. He was held in protective custody for five months, then returned to his childhood home on the German-Danish border to stand trial for violating §175. In September 1936, Grune was convicted and sentenced to prison. Upon his release, the Gestapo returned Grune to protective custody, asserting that his sentence had been too lenient. In early October 1937, Grune was sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, until early April 1940, when he was transferred to Flossenbürg. Around April 1945, as American forces approached, Grune escaped during the evacuation of the camp and joined his sister in Kiel. He spent much of the remainder of his life in Spain, but later returned to Kiel, where he died in 1983, age 80 years.

Acquisition

The lithograph was acquired by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2012.

Accession number: 2012.316.10

Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, The Abraham and Ruth Goldfarb Family Acquisition Fund

Scope and Content

Lithograph created by Richard Grune based upon his experiences as a prisoner in Sachsenhausen and Flossenbürg concentration camps from October 1937-April 1945. Grune was a formally trained artist studying in Berlin, when he was denounced and arrested in December 1934. Under interrogation, Grune admitted to being homosexual. He was held in protective custody for five months, then returned to his childhood home to stand trial for violating §175 which made homosexuality and various acts between men illegal. In September 1936, Grune was convicted and sentenced to prison. At his release, the Gestapo returned Grune to protective custody, asserting that the sentence was too lenient. In October 1937, Grune arrived at Sachsenhausen, and then in April 1940, he was transferred to Flossenbürg. Around April 1945, as American forces approached, Grune escaped during the evacuation of the camp and joined his sister in Kiel. Grune’s desire to publicize the terror of the concentration camps led to the1947 publication of a limited-edition portfolio of his lithographs titled Passion des XX. Jahrhunderts (Passion of the Twentieth Century), one of the earliest and most important visual records of Nazi atrocities.

Conditions Governing Access

No restrictions on access

Conditions Governing Reproduction

Restrictions on use. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum does not own copyright to this material. No information about the copyright was included on the Deed of Gift.

Note(s)

  • The acquisition of this collection was made possible by The Abraham and Ruth Goldfarb Family Acquisition Fund.

  • The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.

  • Object type: Lithographs (aat)

  • Record type: Object

  • EMU Classification: Art

  • EMU Category: Prints

People

Subjects